Assam has been under the rule of several dynasties among which the Varman dynasty, Koch, Kachari and Ahom are the most prominent ones. During the 13th century, Sukaphaa a Tai prince who belonged to Mong Mao, which is presently a part of China came to Assam crossing the Patkai range along with about 9000 followers and established the Ahom Dynasty in the year 1228. They ruled over the state for about 600 years, during which the Delhi Sultanate and Mughals attacked the state 17 times but failed to establish their authority. However, with time the rule of Ahoms had weakened owing to the some internal politics. Assam was invaded by Burma thrice between 1817 and 1826 and during this time Kingdom of Assam (Ahom) came under the control of Burma from 1821 to 1825.
The first revolt against the British was led by Dhananjay Borgohain and Gunadhar Konwar in 1828 AD. Gunadhar Konwar was sentenced to seven years in prison and Dhananjay Borgohain, having been sentenced to death fled to the Matak kingdom. There he secretly joined hands with his own sons Harakanta and Haranath, son-in-law Jeuram Dulia Baruah, and many others and made plans to attack Rangpur. But before they were betrayed by one of their associates, Sadiya Khowa Gohain and several members of the group were hanged and others were debarred from country. Thereafter, the British control over Assam was strengthened. The famous Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 AD, found an echo in Assam under the leadership of Maniram Dewan and Piyoli Barua, who were eventually hanged in 1858 AD. Meanwhile, the British had sought to clamp to linguistic freedom of the natives by introducing Bengali as the medium of instruction in 1837 AD. However it ended in a fiasco because owing to the efforts of the American Baptist Missionaries, and noted intellectuals of the day like Anandaram Dhekial Phukan, Hem Chandra Baruah, and Gunabhiram Baruah, Assamese was reinstated as the medium of instruction in 1873 AD.
Like all other Indian states, Assam as well played an important role in the freedom movement of India. Apart from Sepoy Mutiny, Assam took active part in every movement that led to India to attain Independence. The people of Assam made remarkable contributions at every stage of the freedom movement since 1920 to 1947. The visit of Mahatma Gandhi to the State in 1921 gave fillip to the freedom movement which had already gathered momentum in both valleys of Assam. Kanak Lata Barua, a 15 year old girl became the first martyr of the Quit India Movement in the year 1942 and many others namely Kushal Konwar, Kamala Miri, Maniram Dewan, Bhogeshwari Phukanani etc. also sacrificed their lives for their motherland. Assam’s contribution towards freedom movement of India cannot be ignored.